In December 2006, the United States Congress passed the Peaceful Cooperation in Atomic Energy Act between the United States and India, endorsing an agreement reached during Prime Minister Singh`s visit to the United States in July 2005 and embodied during President Bush`s visit to India in early 2006. The legislation permits the transfer of civilian nuclear material to India. Despite its status outside the NPT, nuclear cooperation with India has been allowed on the basis of its own non-proliferation record and India`s energy needs thanks to its rapid industrialization and population of one billion.  The United States imposes sanctions under various judicial authorities on foreign persons, private entities, and governments engaged in proliferation activities. Announcements of these sanctions provisions are published in the Federal Register and are available on the Government Printing Office website. Copies of the relevant regulations may also be obtained from the same website and from the Library of the Congressional Service. Federal Register notices are the official notifications for all provisions relating to non-proliferation sanctions. Links to these notices on this page will be updated accordingly, but the Federal Register is the only official and comprehensive list of non-proliferation sanctions provisions. Iran has said it has the legal right to enrich uranium for peaceful purposes under the NPT, saying it has “always fulfilled its obligations under the NPT and the status of the International Atomic Energy Agency.”  Iran has also stated that its enrichment program is part of its civilian nuclear energy program, which is permitted under Article IV of the NPT.
The Non-Aligned Movement welcomes Iran`s continued cooperation with the IAEA and reaffirms Iran`s right to the peaceful use of nuclear technology.  Last summer, Louisiana also banned illegal adoption, with violators facing a $5,000 fine and up to five years in prison. In early March 2006, India and the United States reached an agreement to resume cooperation on civil nuclear technology in the face of criticism from both countries. Under the agreement, India committed to classify 14 of its 22 nuclear power plants as civilian and place them under IAEA safeguards. Mohamed ElBaradei, then director general of the IAEA, welcomed the deal, calling India “an important partner in the non-proliferation regime.”  Within the framework of the United Nations, the principle of nuclear non-proliferation was raised in negotiations as early as 1957. The NPT process was initiated in 1958 by Frank Aiken, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Ireland. The NVV gained considerable momentum in the early 1960s. The structure of a treaty to maintain nuclear non-proliferation as a norm of international conduct became clear in the mid-1960s, and in 1968 a final agreement was reached on a treaty aimed at preventing the proliferation of nuclear weapons, enabling cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and promoting the goal of nuclear disarmament. It was opened for signature in 1968, with Finland being the first State to sign it. Membership became almost universal after the end of the Cold War and apartheid South Africa. In 1992, the People`s Republic of China and the France acceded to the NPT as the last of the five nuclear Powers recognized by the Treaty. On 18 September 2009, the General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency called upon Israel to open its nuclear facilities to IAEA inspections and to accede to the Non-Proliferation Treaty in a resolution on “Israeli nuclear capabilities”, which was adopted by a narrow majority of 49 votes to 45, with 16 abstentions.
The Israeli high delegate said that “Israel will not cooperate with this resolution on any issue.”  However, similar resolutions were rejected in 2010, 2013, 2014, and 2015.   As in the case of Pakistan, the NSG guidelines currently exclude nuclear exports from all major suppliers to Israel. In order to promote the objective of non-proliferation and as a confidence-building measure among States parties, the Treaty establishes a safeguards system under the responsibility of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Security arrangements are used to verify compliance with the Treaty through IAEA inspections. The Treaty encourages cooperation in peaceful nuclear technology and equal access to such technology for all States parties, while safeguards prevent the diversion of fissile material for weapons purposes. Two missile sanctions laws, the Arms Export Control Act and the Export Administration Act, prohibit the transfer of missile equipment or technology by foreigners and give the president the legal authority to impose sanctions on criminal entities. At the Seventh Review Conference in May 2005, there were strong differences between the United States, which wanted the conference to focus on non-proliferation, particularly its accusations against Iran, and most other countries, which stressed the lack of serious nuclear disarmament by the nuclear powers. The Non-Aligned Countries reaffirm their position and stress the need for nuclear disarmament.  The Treaty is considered the cornerstone of the global nuclear non-proliferation regime and an essential basis for the pursuit of nuclear disarmament. It was developed to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons, promote the objectives of nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament, and promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. North Korea acceded to the treaty on December 12, 1985, but withdrew on December 10, 1985. In January 2003, the United States announced its withdrawal from the treaty after claiming that it had launched an illegal enriched uranium weapons programme.
and the United States. the subsequent cessation of fuel oil supplies under the Framework Agreement, which had resolved the problems related to plutonium weapons in 1994.  The withdrawal took effect on April 10, 2003, making North Korea the first state to withdraw from the treaty.  North Korea had already announced its withdrawal on 12 March 1993, but had suspended this notification before its entry into force.  The NPT entered into force in 1970. With more than 190 parties, it is the most widely used treaty in the field of non-proliferation and disarmament. Under the NPT, non-nuclear-weapon States undertake not to manufacture or otherwise acquire nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices, while nuclear-weapon States undertake in no way not to support, encourage or induce a non-nuclear-weapon State to manufacture or otherwise acquire nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. The nuclear-weapon States parties to the Treaty are defined as those States that manufactured and detonated a nuclear weapon or other nuclear explosive device before 1 January 1967, including five States. Because the availability of fissile material has long been considered a major obstacle and “stimulator” to a country`s efforts to develop nuclear weapons, it was declared a focus of U.S. policy in 2004 to prevent the spread of uranium enrichment and plutonium reprocessing.