Most national libraries receive a free copy of every book and journal printed in the country under legal law (known as legal law or copyright). Some other libraries around the world share this privilege, although many of them only receive their legal deposit upon request. In Italy, the Law on Legal Deposit (15 April 2004, No. 106) stipulates that one copy of each publication must be sent to both the National Central Library in Florence and the National Central Library in Rome, as has been the case since the creation of the Kingdom of Italy (1861). In modern history, King Francis I of France published the Ordinance of Montpellier in 1537, which required all books to be deposited in his royal library before the book was sold. The decree was abolished during the French Revolution and reintroduced in 1793 to protect copyright. In Belgium, legal deposit was introduced at the end of the sixteenth century and abolished in 1886. During the seventeenth century, legal deposit was introduced in countries such as Germany and Great Britain.  Legal deposit requires publishers to provide the British Library with a copy of any work they publish in the UK.
It has existed in English law since 1662. Since 2013, the legal deposit regulation has been extended to digital and print publications. In Colombia, the Law on Legal Deposit is governed by Law 44 of 1993, Legislative Decree 460 of 16 March 1999 and Decree 2150 of 1995. These laws and decrees refer specifically to the National Library of Colombia. Creators of print, audio-visual and video productions must make available to the Library a certain number of copies of the works, whether made in Colombian territory or imported. The legal deposit system has been put in place with regard to copyright. Published documents are usually deposited in the national libraries of the country concerned. As a general rule, a law on legal deposit establishes the basic principles of legal deposit. It is usually accompanied by regulations or other types of legal instruments that specify the details of the system, such as the categories of material to be deposited, the number of copies, punctuality, etc. Regardless of the type of legislation, the law must address compliance and provide mechanisms to extend the scope of filing to new media. Materials acquired by mandatory deposit serve three related but distinct purposes. It allows for the collection and preservation of all published works from a given country for the benefit of current and future research; ensure that published documents are made available to users when they can no longer be acquired by other means; and it provides a means of compiling the national bibliography of published documents.
Legal deposit was introduced in New Zealand in 1903 and requires copies of all printed materials, offline materials (e.g. DVDs), Internet publications and websites to be sent to the National Library of New Zealand within 20 working days of publication. This process becomes legal under Part 4 of the National Library of New Zealand Act 2003 (Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa).  If more than 100 copies are printed in total, 2 copies must be submitted, otherwise 1. If the price of 1 copy is more than 1,000 NZD, only 1 copy is required.  The University of Oxford is known to be the oldest existing university in the English-speaking world. Bodleian libraries support the study, teaching and research of the entire university community, which has been the largest and oldest university library system in the UK for 400 years. Named after Sir Thomas Bodley (1545-1613), an English diplomat and scholar, the entire Bodleian library system comprises 30 libraries across Oxford, i.e. large research libraries and faculty, departmental and institutional libraries.
Chinese scholar and librarian David Helliwell (Fig. 5.1) has managed the Bodleian Library`s Chinese collections for more than four decades. In the following interview, Helliwell tells us how a Hong Kong newspaper sparked his interest in the Chinese language more than 60 years ago, and how a large collection of Chinese folk books – originally despised by the aristocratic class and scientific communities of the Ming Dynasty – ended up in the Bodleian Library`s collection. Although Cambridge University already had a collection of books and manuscripts in the 14th century, the library itself and its first catalogue date back to the 15th century. From the 16th century onwards, the library experienced significant growth thanks to donations and legal deposits, for which the library is still known today. Despite some neglect during the Reformation, the building was renovated in 1934 and expanded with many additions such as the Aoi Pavilion [Cambridge University Library (UL)] for Asian collections. The library continues to grow its collections through legal deposit and makes collections available worldwide through its digital initiatives. State library mandates are included in state legislation, with the exception of Western Australia, where there is currently no legislation. State Library laws describe the role of libraries in supporting their communities and often contain provisions on legal deposit. In South Australia, for example, the role of the library is as follows: in France, legal deposit was introduced by the Montpellier Ordinance of 1537, according to which a copy of a published book had to be delivered to the King`s library for preservation. In the centuries that followed, forced delivery was sometimes used to facilitate censorship, and so the requirement was briefly lifted during the French Revolution, arguing that it violated freedom of expression.
The main repository is the National Library of France. Legal deposit is extremely developed and concerns not only printed documents, but also multimedia archives and even some websites. Deposited publications are made available to users of depository libraries on their premises, preserved for the benefit of future generations and form part of the national heritage. Legal deposit libraries work together to ensure the long-term preservation of UK publications in print and digital form. They shall ensure that publications are kept secure and can be discovered and accessed by readers. In the United States, two copies of all copyrighted and published works must be submitted to the United States Copyright Office of the Library of Congress.  This mandatory filing is not necessary to hold copyright in unpublished works, but copyright registration can provide an author with enhanced remedies for copyright infringement.  The Library of Congress does not hold all works. If a foreign publisher distributes works in the United States, it must also meet the mandatory requirements.  If you are a publisher, you must deposit a copy of any work you publish in the UK with the British Library and as required by legal deposit libraries.
Digital publications are collected through web archiving or other methods agreed with publishers. However, the France has the oldest law of deposit, dating back to 1537, when Francis I stipulated that a copy of every book published in France should be deposited in the Royal Library in order to obtain permission from the king. French law also provided for the intention of preserving the nation`s written memory in its original form for future generations. In England, the legal deposit system began with a Press Licensing Act 1662, which stipulated that copies had to be delivered to the Royal Library and two universities. The Act and its successors expired in 1695 and were replaced by the first copyright in 1707, after unification with Scotland, which increased the number of libraries receiving copies to nine. In 1579, under the patronage of Emperor Rudolf II, the Habsburg Monarchy was founded. and its renowned librarian and scholar Hugo Blotius introduced a kind of law on the legal deposit of books.